What is the main cause of cervical cancer and has been shown to cause some vaginal,
vulval and anal cancers and genital warts?
While factors such as the oral contraceptive pill, smoking, a woman's immune system and the
presence of other infections seem to play a part, a woman has to have been infected with certain
“high-risk” HPV types before cervical cancer can develop.
In most people HPV is harmless and has no symptoms, but in some people the virus may persist
and lead to diseases of the genital area.
In females, HPV has been also been shown to cause some vaginal, vulval and anal cancers and
In males, HPV has been shown to cause genital warts and some anal cancers.